Oklahoma State University, The Best Students, The Best State UniversitySoil Nutrient Management
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Soil Nutrient Management, Oklahoma State University
Soil Nutrient Management


Book On-Line

Power Point Presentations (supplement)


Chapter 1
             River Boat Gamblers editorial

Chapter 2
                 Nutrient Deficiency Powerpoint
Chapter 3
                 Table of Elements

                 Conjugate Bases and Acids    Wikipedia Link
                 Concentration  handy PP slide
              Calculating Ksp  Purdue

Chapter 4
Chapter 5 Nitrogen
           Nitrogen Cycle     PowerPoint    JPEG
Chapter 6  Phosphorus
         Phosphorus Technology and Manufacturing IPNI
Fertilizer Calculations
           Practice Problems Word    Answers Word
           KSU Fertilizer Excel
           OSU Fertility Recommendations Word (Soil Fertility Handbook excerpt)
           OSU Soiltesting Online Program http://www.soiltesting.okstate.edu/Interpretation.htm
Chapter 7 Potassium
         Potassium Technology and Manufacturing IPNI
Chapter 8

GreenSeeker  updated 11-26-12

Zones, Grid, EC
       Field Maps HY
       Field Maps  EC
       Field Maps REC

Nutrient Deficiencies



Guest Lectures
Bill Raun (OSU Soil Fertility) 8-29-12, 11-12/14-12, Soil Fertility's International Impact, Advancements in Soil Fertility Research.
Dr. Bruce Dunn 10-22-12  Soil Fertility in Horticulture: Slides, Handout1, Handout2
Chrissie A. Segars 10-24-12  Soil Fertility in Turf:

Bill Raun (OSU Soil Fertility) 8-24-11 Soil Fertility's International Impact
8-26-11 Graduate Student Perspective
Jason Warren
(OSU Soil and Water Conservation)  10-5-11 N Fertilization impact on CO2 and N2 emissions.
Van Schuermann (WB Johnston Regional Manager) 10-17-11 Soil Fertilities impact on Wheat Industry.
Chad Godsey (OSU Cropping Systems Specialist) 11-9-11 Nutrient Cycling in No-Till
Joe Armstrong (OSU Weed Science) 11-11-11 Soil and Herbicide


Chad Godsey (OSU Cropping Systems Specialist) 
Bill Raun ( OSU Soil Fertility) 11-1-10 Link
Agustin Bianchini (AAPRESID No-Till Farmer's Argentinean Association) 11-5-10 Presentation
Justin Moss (OSU Turf Grass Specialist) 11-19-10  Presentation
Agustin Bianchini, AAPRESID, Argentina
Agustin Bianchini, AAPRESID, 2008

Dr. Gordon Johnson
       Phosphorus Behavior in Soils

       Banding P in Alfalfa




Reading Assignments

Nature Series
Ag Monitoring, Feeding 1, Feeding 2, Global, Regulations, Industry, Roots

Development and Current Status of No-till Adoption in the World
The spread of Conservation Agriculture: Justification, sustainability and uptake

Profitability Homework ,
Soil Test Assignment 
                    Past years
                    SOIL Samples 2007
                    soil tests 2008
                    Class Results 2008
                    Soil Samples 2009

Nitrogen Cycle  (Ninja Card)
Fertilizer Calculations

Graduate Student Assignments

Extension Publication  (can do as a team no more than 2 students per team)    
    Outline for Ext. Publication


Plant Nutrition and Symptomology
Visual Deficiency Symptoms Plant phys 5.1
International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI)
Mosaic Back to the Basics Web

Relevant Educational topics
Review of ELEMENTS and ATOMS

Articles and Links of Interest
Greenhouse gas mitigation by agricultural intensification
Fertilization and Environment  IPNI
Corn versus Tequila
Earth Picture
National Geographic Soils Quiz
Current World Population
Planet Crumbles While We Are Off Fighting Terror

OSU Links
          Extension Presentations link

Federal and International
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)     
National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS)

Consumption of World’s Nat. Resources       Worlds Population       World’s Waste generated
----------------------------------------- % -------------------------------------------------
Developed                     66                                    20                                 75
Developing                    34                                    80                                 25

(United Nations) Americans and Europeans together spend $17 billion a year on pet food, $4 billion more than the estimated yearly additional amount needed to provide everyone in the world with basic health and nutrition.

27 Million Golfers in the USA 24.3 Billion dollars spent on golf in 2004 ($888/person/year)
82 Million Hunters USA (fishing, etc.) 108 Billion spent on hunting in 2001 ($1317/person/year)

Food Quality, Environmental Safety:  Afforded luxury in the developed world

  • 700 million people in the developing world do not have access to sufficient food

  • 180 million children are underweight

  • 10-12 million preschool children die each year due to hunger, disease, malnutrition (33,000 each day)

  • World population is increasing by almost 100 million people/yr. (3%/yr.)

  • World food production will increase at 2%/yr.

  • 1.1 billion people in developing countries were living in poverty in 1990. IFPRI (International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington DC) http://www.cgiar.org/IFPRI/index.htm

  • 250000 to 500000 preschool children go blind each year due to vitamin A deficiencies.  Two thirds of these children die within months of going blind 

  • (Female Suicide Bomber) Article

Loss of Human Life


Carbon Cycle



Variscite (AlPO4·2H2O, hydrated aluminum phosphate)
Strengite (Fe+++PO4·2(H2O))

Deficiency Symptom                Element                      Mobility       Mobility             Form taken up
                                                                                    Soil             Plant                 by Plants 
overall chlorosis seen                 N Nitrogen                   Yes              Yes                    NO
first on lower leaves

purple leaf margins                     P Phosphorus              No                Yes                    HPO4=,H2PO4-,H3PO4

chlorotic leaf margins                 K Potassium                No                Yes                    K+
uniform chlorosis, stunting

(younger leaves)                         S Sulfur                       Yes              Yes(no)              SO4=,SO2*  

                                                                                                      N*S interaction
stunting - no root

elongation                                 Ca Calcium                  No                No                      Ca++
interveinal chlorosis,

veins remain green                     Fe Iron                         No (ls)          No                      Fe+++,Fe++

interveinal chlorosis                    Mg Magnesium            No (ls)          Yes/No               Mg++
reduced terminal

growth = chlorotic tips                B  Boron (NM)              Yes              No                      H3BO3°

interveinal chlorosis                    Mn Manganese            No                No                      Mn++, Mn+++
wilting, chlorosis, reduced

root growth                                Cl Chlorine                   Yes              Yes                    Cl -
young leaves, yellow &

stunted                                     Cu Copper                   No (ls)          No                      Cu++
interveinal chlorosis in

young leaves                             Zn Zinc                        No (ls)          No                      Zn++
interveinal chlorosis, inner leaf
purple blotches

stunting                                     Mo Molybdenum           Yes/No(ls)    No                      MoO4=

dark green color                         Na Sodium                   No(ls)           Yes                    Na+

                                                C  Carbon                                                                 CO2
                                                H  Hydrogen                                                              H
                                                O  Oxygen                                                                H

*absorbed through plant leaves
(NM) Non Metal
(ls) Low Solubility
Mo availability increases with soil pH, other micronutrients show the opposite of this.
Immobile nutrients in plant; symptoms of deficiency show up in the younger leaves.
Stage of growth when deficiency symptom is apparent = later stage


1 inch of water = 226,610 lbs water/acre
  = 27,171 gallons
1 gallon of water = 8.34 lbs

Turf Example
Green construction:
1. Totally cored the greens out and replaced them with sand to USGA specs.
2. During the grow in process of these greens, they could not get a nitrogen response to the newly seeded bent.
3. They tried spoon feeding the greens with micronutrients to see what the deficiency was but didn't get a nitrogen response until they applied gypsum.
4. Since gypsum is neutral, the pH should not have been a factor, and the irrigation water quality is good so saline or sodic soil should not be either.
5. What was the problem.

1200 kernels/pound
1 bu = 56 pounds
1 bu = 1200 * 56 = 67200 seeds

20% volunteer 227 plants = 44 plants volunteer
row spacing  = 36"
30 m of row = 98.4 ft
1" furrow * 98.4 ft = 0.083*98.4 = 8.19 ft2
44 plants/8.19ft2 = x/43560    x = 234021 plants/acre = 3.5 bu/ac .... 70% germ = 5.0 bu/ac

Past Assignments

If I could be anything in the Nitrogen Cycle
        (N fixation, non-symbiotic fixation, blue-green algae, azotobacter, clostridium, symbiotic fixation, rhizobium japonicum, meliloti, trifoli, organic matter, animal and plant residues, decomposition, aminization, urea, ammonification, nitrification, oxidation, aeration, volatilization, fixation, mineralization, nitrosomonas, nitrobacter, obligate autotrophic bacteria, increased acidity, leaching, immobilization, denitrification, organic C, substrate, immobilization, plant uptake, nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, plant N loss, N in rainfall, nitrate reduction, global warming, reduction, oxidation state)

Comprehensive information on Nitrogen Use Efficiency for cereal crop production